Chloe Popescu 

Ladies and gentlemen, please welcome to the stage our ensuring connectivity during disasters panel

 
Edward Hsu 

Okay, well thank you very much. Thank you very much everybody for being here as well as for those watching through the live stream. And I'd like to thank our panelists for being here. And some quick introductions. My name is Ed Hsu. I'm with the World Bank Group. This is Andrea Caldini. She's from Verizon or Vice President of Network engineering. Boutheina is the Director of Digital Development at the World Bank. Nelly Riama is the Director of Research at the Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics. And Peter Xu is the CTO for the IBM Electronics Industry. And we're here today to talk about resilient connectivity. And I think this is such an important topic because not only does it save a lot of financial resources, if we can do it well, but most importantly, it saves lives. I think we're here to talk today about why is it important to have connectivity on during, when a natural disaster or conflict hits, often is the first thing that go out. But if we can restore it, we can help connect people with families, we can help connect first responders. But even better if we can stop the networks from going out, we can then even see even more benefits and more live saved. So I'm going to turn it to Boutheina first, and she's going to start with sort of a global overview of the evidence from the World Bank Group that we're seeing across different countries.

 
Boutheina Guermazi 

Thank you very much, Ed. It's a pleasure to be here today and talk about ensuring connectivity during disasters. I'm going to talk about the importance of having resilience in infrastructure to make sure that communication continues even during disaster. And I'm going to try as much as possible to have the discussion linked to policy decisions that policymakers have to make in their investment decision. Both policymakers and the private sector. And the discussion, I think it's happening at a time where connectivity is even more important than it used to be before. Because, you know, connectivity is really the foundation for the digital economy. We're moving towards an economy that is more and more digitized. So any disruption on on connectivities and disruption to the economy at large. I start with few numbers. Over the past 20 years, there were about 12,000 natural disasters incidents, and they cause the economy $3.5 trillion. And if we look at within the gamut of natural disaster, we find that floods actually are responsible for 30% of those damages. In the World Bank, we did some research about deception of infrastructure. It's up to $750 billion per annum of disruption to infrastructure and if we look at the causes of the infrastructure disturbance 50% of it is linked to natural disasters. Another data point that is important and 7 out of 10 countries that are the hardest hit by natural disasters are the client countries for the World Bank. So, they are countries that are low income country and lower middle income countries. And they are also the ones that are find it more difficult to to react and to adjust. We had earlier discussion in the earlier session about how technology can help from climate monitoring to early warning to first response and recovery. And we heard from the previous session, a lot of examples from drones to sensors to mapping and satellites. So I will not go through it in details.

 
Boutheina Guermazi 

One point that I wanted to make from the beginning as we talk about digital connectivity, there is a lot of it that is happening through wireless. And we know today there are more mobile phone than people in the world. But there is underlying this there is a lot of physical infrastructure beyond wireless. And this part of the infrastructure is quite difficult when it comes to making sure that it doesn't fail. Totally. So we did some research. And we know that digital infrastructure is more than primary or secondary roads and more than laneways. And this, you know, millions of kilometres of fibers are the ones linking 6 million mobile base stations, a lot of data centers. And as we move to a hyper connected world with IoT and 5g, they're also increasingly important to create that connectivity for the Internet of Things. So that's an element that we need to take into account as we think about making sure that infrastructure remains resilience. One way to look at it is we're proposing to look at the internet value chain looking at first mile, middle mile and last mile connectivity. And for each mile, a very some infrastructure elements that need to, we need to think about redundancy. And we need to think about rapid recovery for each one of them. And there are solutions that are out there. Some of these solutions, I'm sure we'll hear about more from our private sector participants in the panel. There are a lot of solutions that are out there that are developed and there are a number of solutions that are still at pilot stage. This is clearly an area where there is a lot of innovation happening. So the first mile in submarine cable connectivity, the issues of submarine is the recovery of connection requires a lot of time it's a heavy investment. So policymakers and private sector and you know operators need to think about redundancy of connection as a matter of policy and the Examples of solutions, low Earth orbit satellites Point to Point wireless connectivity solution, like the one that are laser based. The same for middle mile mile. It's in addition to redundancy that is very important. We need to think about rapid recovery. And then when it comes to the last mile, this is where what the customers see. The importance of rapid recovery and backup connectivity is very important. And examples are the BTS on wheels, the collapsible transmission equipment, and the drones that were discussed before. The importance of an ecosystem approach or the value chain for connectivity is important because it's important to try to salvage parts of the network as much as possible because the past that can be salvaged, can be used for redundancy and can be used for connectivity during disasters. digital infrastructure is very vulnerable to climate events. So this is an exercise that we did at the World Bank. We looked at a number of infrastructure, climate events. And we looked at different parts of the infrastructure from submarine cables to nearshore cables to landing stations. And we looked at, we developed this traffic light system that shows in some cases, the impact is low. In some cases, medium. In many cases, it's high. But it shows whatever the climate event and whatever phase of the network there is, are always a risk and damage that we need to think about as we think about resiliency of infrastructure.

 
Boutheina Guermazi 

The main point that we want to make here is we need to look at the economy wide impact when we think about disruption. And one way to think about it is to look at the risks that happen At the asset level, then the risk that happened at the network level, and then the risk that happened as a system wide level on the asset, you know, the cable cast the terrestrial and submarine, the damage to the towers and antennas or the flooding of the data centers or example that happened at the the asset level on the network is very reduction of transmission capacity. The parts of the network that are unaffected are most of the time overloaded. So how do we manage that? And the issues around network black blackout and how do we look at that, on the system wide impact, it's really the whole supply chain disruption that happens and then the losses to the ICT sector. As I mentioned earlier, it's really beyond the ICT sector is the losses to the whole industry. And we have examples here. I will not go into details about the examples, but it shows that for each risk varies a big damage And you know, it can it was up to $1.5 billion in Puerto Rico $50 million in in Dominica and I chose examples of small countries where these impacts are really heavily fests. The key question for policymakers and for regulators and for you know, the investment community is where do we invest, we invest in resilience, do we invest in recovery and the title for the slide should be investment in resilience and recovery. It shouldn't be either or. But here we go at the different risks and there is a priority of investing in resilience versus recovery depending on the risk and where the risk is in the, in the particular part of an out of the network. So for example, submarine cables, it's not easy to think about recovery. But it's very important to think Think about resilience. When it's mobile tower, maybe the approach is, is slightly different. So it's not a one size fits all. But it's very important for policymakers to have both the angle of resilience and recovery as they think about investment solution. One thing that we hear a lot when we think about disruption of the ICT sector is to really think about it as the utility. It's a critical infrastructure is very important, beyond the communication needs, although they are very important, but also as they underpin the whole economy. And thinking about the connectivity as a utility is very important. But as we do, we do that we need to look at the particular unique features of connectivity. And I wanted to highlight three unique features. One is it's very private sector dominated. But with an ownership that is distributed. That's very important and the its unique feature of the digital sector as compared to the other utilities, which makes the discussion about resilience very important in the sense that it should encompass a wider range of stakeholders and the other utilities. Also, there is a whole discussion about reconciling affordability and the investment in resilience. We know today that many countries and many citizens in many countries do not use broadband as we want them to to use it and the risk means the element that is put there is it's expensive. So there is an issue of affordability in the world. And so how do we make sure that you know thinking about resiliency is not an afterthought, but as we think about it, we think about the whole affordability features of broadband, and this is something that requires a lot of dialogue between the operators and the performance and even possibilities of subsidizing if if there is a need to do that. The other feature is that connectivity digital connectivity is cross sectoral by nature. And if there is a disruption on a digital infrastructure, we need to think beyond digital because you know, it brings the other elements of, of the broader connectivity that is important to put in, in place. the right balance technology can help us the right with the right balance between resilience and recovery. I want to leave you with this particular

 
Boutheina Guermazi 

elements. You know, for every dollar invested in building resilience infrastructure, it saves $6 to $11 in post disaster repairs, so there is a unique multiplier effect of thinking resilience as we think about building infrastructure, shorter upgrade cycle of equipment in the sector gives an opportunity for improving resilience. That's important and there are some So many elements out there already that shows that there are elements that we can build on as we think about, about resilience. And I'm sure we will hear more about from the other panelists. I just wanted to highlight you know, dump equipment is getting smart too. So with 4g and 5g, there are parts of the network that are intelligent and there are possibility to use the mesh networks for saving part of the network. Even if you know the core is is damaged, and a Golden Oldies still gold. Let's not forget in this whole discussion that radio is very important for first response. I think it's an I wanted to to highlight the importance of the broader ecosystem around the enabling environment. The discussion about resilience is one part of a bigger discussion about how do we make sure that we create the enabling environment for the for the sector. So here there are few elements that are that apply to having a good investment in infrastructure, including the resilience, part of it. Technological notoriety is very important if you know, operators in a in a, in a market can deploy technology regardless of of, or based on the principle of technological neutrality, then reaction to, to create resilience is easier. It's not constrained by regulatory environments, and the whole idea of creating an opportunity for sandboxes and emergency protocols to create good enabling conditions for you know, startups to come up with, with good, good ideas and to pilot them. I want to leave you with four takeaways. One technology is key for system wide resilience and ensuring speed of recovery from localized impact. Second, we need to balance investment in resilience and dropping costs of service. This is a challenge but We really need to, to think outside of the box to to find the right formula. We need a better coordination between the private sector and the public sector. Because you know, both will play a key role in in this. And technology is just enough is just one element of the discussion. We need innovation in business models. We need innovation in financing models. Thank you very much.

 
Edward Hsu 

Thank you. Thank you Boutheina.

 
Edward Hsu 

Really a quite comprehensive and impressive overview of the topic. And I think you've made a very compelling case that when we talk about resilient connectivity, it's not just about responding to disasters, but about the entire impact upon the economy and and, and another motivation for governments and private sector to be really looking at this. So I'm going to turn it over to Nally right now. And we're going to hear a bit of a case study of what's been happening in Indonesia. And so Nelly when I turn it over to you

 
Nelly Riama 

Thank you very much, Ed. So, sorry. First, I want to thank you for the opportunity that I can represent my country, Indonesia in this event. And please do apologize that my director general cannot come here because right now in Indonesia, we experience a very big flooding in our capital city in Jakarta. So my talk is a case study of our challenges and opportunities trinities of the tsunami, early warning, connectivity to the last mile communities. As you may already know that our country is laying in the active plate Atlantic region, and every year, we experienced 5000 to 6000 times of earthquake. So it's a very prone area and often course he as we our country consists of more than 17,000 of Ireland. So the tsunami is also the place in our country. The worst case it was in, in Aceh in  2004. And after that, we sought to develop our tsunami early warning system. And right now in 2000. Since 2015, we realized that when we want to reach our community, we need to make sure all the technology that can reach the people and we ensure that we now transform our multi hazard monitoring and early warning system to the digital and (inaudible) since 2015, In our country right now, we are on the first run that have followers among the followers among the National Agency in Indonesia, we have more than 4 million people. So we want to ensure that our information we all read the people. But we also learned that from our last big earthquake in 2018, that this tsunami is fair if the the time lapse between the tsunami and the earthquake is very short, it's less than five minutes so, we cannot read the people

 
Nelly Riama 

At that time, so because dfrom this event we learned that no warning reads their major impacted area do the connectivity disruption goes no electricity, electricity and the area. And from these, we ensure that people at the location right now at the broad area tsunami broad area must real to have their self efficacy Asian. And we have our next charger for the Indonesia tsunami early warning system right now, the early warning system we can give in five minutes. So for the next five years, we have a target that we take, we can reduce the only one system less than two minutes so The challenges for our country at now is many of them are less availability of electricity. And significant equity and tsunami usually leads to connectivity collapse. So the opportunities are, we try to develop an alternative mode of inclusive and robust connectivity. And the senior guys, with the private sector, for the continuty of connectivity, and of course, try to have mutual collaboration with the online platform with many followers of many done loaders application like online transportation. Okay, thank you very much.

 
Edward Hsu 

Thank you very much. Really quite stunning to learn about the number. I think you mentioned five to 6000 earthquakes every year. It's quite, quite amazing. So thank you for all your work you're doing to really ensure the safety of your people. I'm going to turn it over to Andrea from Verizon. And we'd love to hear more. What What have you learned at Verizon from your work within the US in terms of being able to respond quicker being able to have more resilient networks? What are some lessons learned that you've been able to draw out from from your technology?

 
Andrea Caldini 

So as we look at horizon, our horizon approaches resiliency, it's part of our DNA. So we always talk about reliability as a key factor for Verizon, and for our customers. So it's all around how we design the network. So if you think about the design, starting with cell sites, we can start out at the cell sites with battery backup. We have generators there, for sites that we can have a generator, we have the ability to do put a portable generator there, and we add additional battery. So thinking of connectivity, when the power goes out, then those go Back to a mobile switching center, which is really the heartbeat of the network. And when you think of that mobile switching center, if that goes down, then that takes down quite a lot of cell cell sites. So we have redundancy. They're not only in power battery, we have backup power backup, for the backup, so if our generator goes down, there's a backup generator. If that goes down, we have a portable generator that we can put over. So we have a power of solution. And then as we think about connectivity with fiber, we have dual connectivity to those locations as well. In some cases, we have tried, try connectivity because what we found in certain parts of the country, without even a disaster, because of all of the building that we're doing, is we have fiber cuts. So we want to make sure we're not in a simplex mode, that we have actually three different ways of connectivity to those mobile switching centers. So that's how we manage our power, how we manage the fiber there. When you you talk about a cell side and you know some of the hurricanes and things that we've gone through in the past few years, connectivity to cell sites important. If the fiber network is down, you need to have an alternative. So we have satellite assets that we can bring out there. And we can bring up a whole fully loaded cell site with satellite. We also do temporary microwave where we can put up a temporary microwave system throughout the network, if we have a fiber issue. And then there's all the portable devices. So those are our cells on wheels, that we can bring out two locations if a cell site goes down and provide connectivity that way. And, you know, if you think about just getting the assets out there, so there's all it's all around having the resiliency and then the next piece of it is when the disaster happens, how do you respond? So you need to have things like fuel right, so you have a ton of generators out there that need refueling, so There's all the coordination around refueling. Sometimes you can't get to those sites. So you need crews that can clear the road. You need boats. We have cell sites with flood areas. We have those up on stilts, right? So you still need to get out to them. You need to have a boat some way to get there. We work very closely with state and local government with FEMA. We're in their emergency operations centers. We're providing them all sorts of information on the network, how it's working, if there's cell sites that are out what our contingency is. The other area that we work on is if you think about, where are people evacuating to sometimes they go to stadiums, we have great connectivity in our stadiums, but sometimes they go to places that we don't necessarily have the capacity. So then we have these temporary solutions that we put up for, for the capacity. We've done that for FEMA, we've done that, you know, Tyndall Air Force Base, we put out a whole Wi Fi system for them out there because they were completely destroyed during the hurricane and then depending on the topology, so out in California We have earthquakes. So our mobile switching centers there are set up to handle earthquakes. In the south, we have hurricanes. So we have kept five rated mobile switching centers up north. We have ice issues in Minnesota. So how do we manage those, so it's all around thinking of the design. And then when the emergency happens, having the ability to respond, having the team there that hat is coordinating with the local authorities, as well as coordinating our recovery. And one other thing just I think it's kind of interesting, but in in areas where we have tornados, for our temporary assets, we actually have them stored 60 feet underground, so that if there's a tornado hits, it doesn't take out our assets, and then we can use them. So you know, thinking about different parts of the country. What what's your challenge there and then having a solution to support that.

 
Edward Hsu 

Fantastic. Thank you so much. Peter, let me turn to you. Would be great to hear from IBM perspective. How do you think about resilient infrastructure? What where do you see the technology going? What sort of innovations is IBM really looking at in this space?

 
Peter Xu 

Oh sure. Thanks, Edward, of oldest three, our panel has done fantastic job as far as economic impact how we do from a telco perspective, right. So I'm part of IBM Global electronics team. So in my role on slinkier role, I work with electronics company, you know, helping them deploy a solution, right? So when you see electronic high tech companies that everybody you see here in consumer electronics, but there's a lot of set of network equipment, you know, company, right, traditional network provider, that we equip on a wider also telco network provider, which adds a supply order hardware for MGR. See the telco company, right. So we work with them with with telco team, the telco industry, specifically around how can we make that work, mostly. And not just from a hardware perspective, also from software perspective, right? If you not know, you know, and follow the space where quick, we're closing the UFC, one biggest transformation happening network side is cloud network, cloud ification. Basically, you know, how can you make network, you know, not from virtualization, how can you make more cloud native world kind of network, right? What does that mean is you can deploy software support in the network, much more resilient, also much easier to deploy function anytime you want. Right. So that's something we have done a lot with telco, company, also I bet you probably heard of Red Hat, IBM acquired, which actually is providing writing support in telco company, you know, in their network, the open, open stack. How can we make the network function virtualization moving more and more to cloud native network function virtualization, right? So that's something we work with telco closely, we also work with network equipment provider, you're not you probably all know the big names there. So we actually help to work with them directly, how can they make their next generation of network equipment more based on more standards, right? So, so they can't deploy their network function on a standard hardware is that case in the, in the event of disaster, you can actually replace that or even you know, make it more resilient, easier until traditional proprietary hardware solution. So that's another aspect we're working with not on network cream provider. So unless the bigger internet 5g you know, network perspective, what we are doing on the other side, I think Boutheina mentioned in case sometime you take still take much longer to actually get internet access, we still should have the ability to form a local network to solve some in the use cases which do not need Internet access right? That's called local net mesh network kind of solution I can give you a quick example why is IBM Research actually come up with some software based technology that actually can allow you any mobile phone actual former mobile net network or a match to match your phone to phone they actually can deliver a you know connect to each other peer peer to peer will if you can do that. So as my as you know, the phone call could talk to each other. Even in this whole room here old phone connect to each other we do not have you know, internet access. Somehow you can reach out to our outside, outside phone carriage house somewhere else. Eventually, we'll get our connection which connect to the internet. If that is the case, you can always get emergency alerts sent to your phone even we're sitting here without directly connected cellular network. That's not something not in the fiction actually. If you download the Weather Channel At this company IBM acquired by couple years ago, whether just most of downloaded weather app is most accurate weather prediction system in the world, they actually deploys a weather channel app with this technology embedded in Asia, in Africa or South America. So basically, what it can do is, in the case, it just opens a weather Weather Channel app in a form and mobile net network, a mesh network, we can send you a mesh network alert, without internet data, even for yourself, right. So that's kind of say you can say definitely can happen, you know, for the local mesh network for some kind of scenario, it doesn't count. So we actually have another example. You know, you I don't know you heard of IBM has a big initiative call for code, which is through our punked global developer 24 million wasn't right. So how can developer deploy a hardware software based solution to respond faster in the disaster recovery scenario, one of the core a winner back two years ago not last year 2018 a project called Project all that, you know, cover college student come up with a fantastic idea. Can we use some simple IoT device cheaper IoT device actually just form a mobile. NET mobile and mesh network just we talked about just now. So without install anything on your phone, right, but this still can pop use a Bluetooth somehow connect to this class third of the dark cluster dark. So each of the dark is basically a mesh mesh network nodes, right? So they formed the network, they actually can connect your phone so they have no internet, but your phone can connect with the cluster party mesh network. So they actually wins a prize back in 2018. So they actually deploy the solution in all like even back in December this year. They are actually Between 12 and Puerto Rico, some of you may heard, you knows hurricane hit very hard in Puerto Rico. So, that's kind of innovation we are talking about, you know, you unleashing developers creativity, you come up with some innovative solution, even though may not be at the skill and you know, variety is providing you every community is different, the ability to create local lies, you know, ad hoc network can do solve some some problem which may or may or may not need to truly, you know, connect a network scenario. I think that definitely will save save lives save time. It's actually also if you tap into the local talent, local developer, you know, you know, government public knocks public among nonprofit organization. That's a creativity calm that's I think it's a true to the resilience camp is not just a physical network, it's also about connect people together, also the solution build on top, that's where ultimately, we need To save a life in the event of disaster.

 
Edward Hsu 

Great, thank you very much, Peter. Andrea, I'd love to come back to you. And given what you've heard from Nelly in terms of the challenges that she's facing in Indonesia, and what you've seen in America, and also what you've seen in terms of where the technology is going. What what sort of recommendations would you have for Nelly in terms of the technology she should think about? To you know, for the challenges she's outlined, you know, having a connected vehicle to connect with people be able to speak to people, making sure that early warning system work? What sort of advice in terms of the priority areas that you would you would you see technology going could really help solve Indonesia's problems?

 
Andrea Caldini 

So as we look at, again, coming back to how you design the network, and it really has to be part of the design going out there, there's not a possible way that you know, you have your network out there, and then you want to go back and retrofit you can do that, but it's a lot more expensive. So as you're putting the network out there, understanding the topology of the local community is important. And you know, power is huge. And as we think of moving into the future, some of the changes that we'll see in power in in battery, right, so they'll be improvement in battery, also improvement in, you know, fuel cell. I see things in the future, they're changing. But again, it's around how you lay the network out. the brains of the network have to be resilient. It's all it starts with the design, that we look at things like millimeter wave that we have for 5g, a possibility for that for backhaul, right. So as we're thinking about in the future, how can we use millimeter wave for backhaul. We also have instances where we have locations that had been flooded. Hurricane Florence, part of North Carolina terribly flooded. There was no way to get in there. We use Drones or manned aircraft with mobile sites on it so you could support those communities that were out of service. So there there are those opportunities. And as we think in the future of drone technology and the improvements of drone technology and being able to do non line of sight with drone, I think that there's a great opportunity there when you have a disaster where you have to go to recovery.

 
Edward Hsu 

Great, thank you. Nelly, I'd be curious to hear from you. I mean, you've you've heard some here. during your time at CES, we're going to encounter a lot of other new technologies this morning we were listening to discussion on parallel realities and and how that works. What is the you know, what is the challenge for for you or for an Indonesian government to procure new technologies? What are the main barriers Do you have advice for for the audience here at CES of how they can ensure their technology is is is better adopted and diffused in in countries like Indonesia.

 
Nelly Riama 

I think because our the graphical uniqueness of Indonesia that I already mentioned that consists of 17,000 Islands, so many, many, many region there is a very remote area, and we cannot reach them, let's say through through the air, maybe just the only way through the sea. So it's quite difficult for us it's quite challenging for us how we can find the best solution for for our country. So we need we need to think the most efficient way how we can consist to reach our community with the early warning information that we have. And we must consider of course on the funding availability.

 
Edward Hsu 

Great. And do you find that you are able to access the best technology? Or what what are the what are the barriers you have in terms of being able to, to find the companies to work with?

 
Nelly Riama 

I think it's right now. More maybe more companies in the world want to collaborate with us, but as already mentioned that we need to have what is the what is the best design for us? We cannot change the design because the new technology come.

 
Edward Hsu 

Yeah. Great. Boutheina, I want to come back to you, you mentioned that, you know, the cost of disasters is $750 billion per year. And you've also talked about how much money can be saved with appropriate investment in resilience. Can you talk a little bit about again to the audience here, technology companies, what is the what is the market demand that you're seeing what does the market opportunity? And how can companies here really tap into this market? You're you're out there speaking with governments, you're seeing what they want to buy, what they want to procure, what what what are the what are the really focused areas that if if we could get more products to market that we were the World Bank and other governments would really want to come in and start to use?

 
Boutheina Guermazi 

Yeah. So I think one important point is this, I mean, the order of magnitude, as as shared earlier, and also earlier in the in the first session when we're talking about trillions of dollars. It's it's not a small niche there. Yeah. So if I want to think about it as an opportunity for governments and private sector to have a closer collaboration, I think it's this dialogue needs needs to happen and the examples from horizon are amazing. An example from Indonesia and IBM is amazing. But you know, a number of countries That we cover, we don't we don't see this. So I like very much like your point about, you know, resilience by design, you know, you don't think about resilience, you know, as a second thought or an afterthought, in Unfortunately, many of the clients that we serve, it's it's not there. And this, you know, goes back to the, to the point that I tried to make the importance of this ecosystem that we look at the whole thing in, in in, in one. So if you have a market where you have a telecom operator who's resisting change, or you have a telecom operator, not open to the idea of competition, resilience will be more difficult in those markets. So how do we bring, you know, the example of, you know, cases where it worked? How do we bring this the voice? You know, I mean, what you shared with us is very good. How do we get an opportunity like the one we have here, to bring these experiences to other countries will be very useful. And you know, how do we create an environment where a dialogue between the private sector and the public sector is is seamless. It is good, because there is a market out there. I mean, there is so much the private sector can do. At the end of the day, this is all to save lives. But you know it, there is a market opportunity linked to it. And there is a huge risk if we don't do it. So from the public sector perspective, from government perspective, you know, think about how much losses will be there, if we don't think about that from the get go. And from the private sector, how do you make sure that you have the elements that can be used? I also like the example from the startup example that you mentioned, how do we create a good dialogue between the public sector and private sector to create a good environment for those ideas to five? I don't think it's a technology question, the technology's there and what we heard today I mean, there is an immense examples of good applications and there will be more as technology will develop. But how do we create a good system for these ideas to thrive, to develop to go to market, and that dialogue I think needs to happen and needs to happen, you know, frequently because at the end of the day, it's lives that we're saving.

 
Edward Hsu 

Great. Maybe Peter, it would be great to come back to you and hear from your perspective, you know, where do you see this, this market going, you know, five to 10 years from now, in terms of, especially as we think about particularly low cost solutions, affordable solutions. I think that's something else you mentioned in an area of scarce resources. What are some of the solutions that you're seeing that could come and really address this this issue?

 
Peter Xu 

Sure. Yeah, I think I once I like my job is I think I'm always working I IBM, typical single is IT company, right. And we work with actually I mean, working with electronic companies, you know, they have provided all the equipment, you know, to run the work right? To operate that's operation technology. At the same time we work with land where equipment company, which are supporting the network company, right? It's like I'm working at intersection of IT OT and this communication Tech City. Right? I think in to your question how to network, you know, get more resilient, I think it's not a one network companies problem, the network needs to become more open, more software defined, more interoperable, that's where you can get the most resilient Technology Network out there. Because if you think about it, if your radio network can be more interoperable, right, even one providers, you know, similar, you know, similar thought it in danza can communicate with other network, then if all the network function can be easily virtualized deploying cognitum fashion. That's how a lot of the palco come that learning from cloud native cloud native company is doing right. That's where hope even you cannot predict everything for resilience but you can recover much faster than ever before. Right? So that's where I'm saying more, more cloud native, you know, more open will make some network most resilient among long term.

 
Edward Hsu 

Great, thank you. So in a few minutes, we're going to be able to open it up for questions. If you have any questions, feel free to step up to a microphone, there's a couple of microphones here or you can raise your hand. So feel free to think of some questions and in the meantime on before we get to that, Andrea, I'd love to come back to you. You talked a little bit about 5G. would want to hear more about what is you know, a lot of our a lot of the countries developing countries particularly thinking about 5g and thinking about is it worth the investment or not? How quickly should they try to roll out would be great to hear your perspective from this. You know, when we're talking about resilient infrastructure, what is the connection between 5g and resilience and and what are the benefits we see from from countries that do roll out 5g quickly

 
Andrea Caldini 

So I we're at the early stages of 5g, really working on millimeter wave at Verizon, we've launched over 31 cities in 2019. And we're building furiously. Hopefully we've got a few more on air right now. I my counterpart is in the audience and he's probably checking to make sure his team's getting as many as out as possible. When we think about 5g the technology that 5g will bring us the specially with millimeter wave. I mean, the capacity that's there, it's just phenomenal. I mean, I can't I started off I I'm aging myself in the One X and I was really excited when we had 64k i thought that was cool. You know, we're getting gigabit speed we've seen two gigabits in millimeter wave and we're just in the beginning, what we're going to see from millimeter wave I think, you know, that it's such an early we're at such an early stage, their things that they're doing in for use cases. Where they're doing some simulation using millimeter wave for when they're in a situation. So you can put people in real time. So training on how they react in a in a in a disaster, right? What are those training things that you want to have second nature as you as you approach that, as we look at 5g proliferation throughout the network, you know, we'll start to see this moving forward with resiliency as well on how we're designing it. I think you know, right now, if we think about the next two years, it won't be part of our solution. We will look at it for backhaul solution, you know, for temporary, but then as we move forward, you'll start to see 5g becoming a bigger part of, of both having resiliency and recovery for these types of solutions. And then, you know, there might be situations where we have, you know, we're talked about some of the locations where people are moving to right where you have, we can put a temporary solution in there with 5g that just has much more capacity to be able to support right. Some of the emergency operation centers, again, we could put five t to support, they're giving them the capacity that they need. So I think that there are point solutions that will start out with as we build our network, we will build it in the same way that we've built our 4g network, so that we'll have we'll have a resilient network moving forward.

 
Edward Hsu 

Great. And do you have advice for Boutheina as she talks to her clients about whether or not to implement 5g what's what's your your advice typically?

 
Nelly Riama 

like? Look, I think the 5g network is the future right? So we advise them we were the first to deliver 4g, I actually moved to Europe right after that. I had a wait for 4g for ages and I was surprised at how long it took for the other countries to start. Moving forward. And you think of what a 4g network provides you versus what 3g provided you, five G's is even better. And the different applications that will have on there. I mean, we can start thinking about what those will be today. But moving forward, you know, definitely would look at the new technology versus the older technology. We're talking about virtualization before, you know, there's things that we talked about for network slicing, so that you could create different solutions depending on the application for the users. And I think network slicing certainly has a where you could have something for public safety, that's a different slice than what you have for your normal consumer traffic. So I think you get a lot more flexibility and the network provides it. Again, that's a it's a bit out there yet. We're not we don't have that today. But that is one of the things that will have you'll have a lot more capacity that you'll be able to support on the network, a lot more connected users as we move forward in 5g. So definitely, you know, as we think of our network, we think everything eventually moving over to 5g.

 
Edward Hsu 

Great, fantastic. Any questions in the audience? Feel free to raise your hand and I'll call on you. Otherwise, let me continue with some some questions. Maybe as a question to, you know, to all of you. we've, we've heard a lot about sort of other technologies that Google's developing, for example, loon, many people have mentioned drones. There's other sort of other technologies like that. Should countries be investing in those as well as a secondary backup, when everything else goes out, being able to deploy balloons or you know, so be great to hear some, some thoughts on, you know, how to prioritize resources, as we think about these new technologies as well.

 
Boutheina Guermazi 

So one thing that is very important, I think, in our dialogue with with governments is this concept of technology neutrality. And I think so when we talk to clients, the first thing that we put on the table, you need to make sure that you give good access to your, to your to your people in terms of broadband, this is really the foundation of, of digital economy, how you get there, what is the technology and we're trying to push as much as possible this concept of technology neutrality, and you know, a lot I mean, we've done a piece of research this year looking at innovative business models to to cover the unconnected and what's interesting in in the findings of this research is actually these new technologies are the one that we need to look at, in in details. So from from our side with with the World Bank, in our dialogue with with with the countries, you know, go there and look at the opportunities that technology offer and you know, you will be amazed the discussion on 5g I mean, now, our clients are asking us and asked, you know, is it something that we need to consider? And of course, even if you look at what 5g is doing, I mean that the the, the question is still out there. Is it an evolution or revolution? So, you know, the opportunities that 5g will bring to countries in smart cities, for example, in all these use case driven applications in what 5g can bring to health to education to I mean, it's, it's incredible and we don't know the answers yet. And we don't have the numbers yet. But you know, to answer a question about technology, of course, every technology that is out there, look at it, try to see what the advantages and don't constrain your private sector in one technology or the other. Everything should be good. As long as the end objective is people making their lives better, making sure that there are you know, the right environment. meant to protect data, making sure that there is the right cyber security environment, making sure that there are the risks are, are addressed. Technology is a means to to or to an objective for better life.

 
Edward Hsu 

Any any other thoughts comments on?

 
Peter Xu 

Yeah, I think enough should be open. Right? I'd say it's another day it's how easy how expensive to deploy the technology, right? Because you also need to focus on you know, what's existing technology and but more mature technology. I think 5g probably is you know, we probably have some some accurate unified, all this activity connectivity or that come together, right. 5g has multiple access in edge computing capability. It can unite all kinds of access point radio together. So that's actually a good thing to you know, invest versus your diversity your tie into somewhere else there. But the definite not balloon satellite. Have own use cases but that's more some edge use cases you embody for thought but more common use Canada disaster for some entertainment. That's probably one a unifying technology we should focus on.

 
Edward Hsu 

Fantastic. Okay, any questions? Last chance? Otherwise we're going to go to okay here we have some questions. A question here.

 
Andrea Caldini 

Guys, thank you very much for the panel, maybe Peter, accessibility, disabilities, those who are challenged aged, you know, in the face of disasters, you have first responders and then you have those in most in need, right, who are less mobile. And any of you dress that may be starting Peter and down the list as far as anything special that you see with regard to those challenges. In addition to of course, you've got the network but for that category of a special rescuer or those who are most challenged during this time,

 
Peter Xu 

Oh Thanks. Yeah, I think, you know, as we talk about disaster response, you know, it's a, it's a complex problem, you it network is one layer, but you always need to have a partner ecosystem who bring in the right device in a wearable to actually unite we talked about the mesh network devices. Then on top of that, how can you build a solution on top to address specific challenge? A lot of the recovered localized challenge, right? So give me example right, because we actually did something with you know, you know, the first responding kindness, you know, that's another in this years, you know, I've been called for cold winner, they actually delivered develop a solution for the firefighter is actually the winner is the one in firefighter, and other kinds of nurse with toxic toxicology experience, the three developer they actually create a solution to help fighter in the disaster, you know, the copy of first responding kind of situation, that basically customized IoT device with a sensor temperature in or humidity or soda smoke detector or that kind of sensor. So they can actually in blue time monitor, so firefighters and a vital sign, they actually collected data send into IBM Cloud, analyze in critters in real time dashboard. So the command center can monitor their situation in were, you know, easy way, right? Because if that's where you say the connectivity to ecosystem partner, how the words and the solution or come together to respond, you know, in real time, you know, saving life, you know, the situation there

 
Edward Hsu 

Any other panelists have a comment on that? Okay, great. Any other questions before we close? Okay. Great. Well, I think we've heard a lot today. You know, one of the key points that come out is really designing for resilience. We've heard about how much the investment in resilience has much, much, you know, yields very high return. And we've heard some really important principles of design. I think Peter was mentioning openness and interoperability. And I think Andrea has given a lot in terms of where the technology is going. So just as a reminder, I think we mentioned the last panel that the World Bank Group and CES have partnered on putting out a challenge, where we're looking for new solutions for resilience from the technology community. And we're going to implement it in the coastal cities in India. So I think is a fantastic opportunity for the technology community to really come up with new solutions that are adapted for developing country context and really put into places that I think in the last panel, the pert the house from Bangladesh was saying that are on the front lines of Climate change, and really affect people, the poor who are affected the most by climate change. So I want encourage all of you to apply, or to really let us know what solutions you have. And before we end up, I just want to give each panelist maybe 30 seconds. You know, if you also have some last advice to technology companies looking in this space, what should they focus on? Where should they prioritize? Where's the opportunity? And where's the need to start here?

 
Andrea Caldini 

So again, I think it's, it's geographic based, right? So understanding the geography for the solution you need to put in place, having the design there, but then also being able to execute once you are in the emergency, right, having those connections with state level, state and local government, with the federal government. The ability to refuel to put out assets to support the the issue you have I mean, we've done things from disaster to also to horrible things like shootings right where you have Massive event you have a lot of people there, how do you put an asset up quickly to be able to support the community there and also the first responders so it's really all around design and execution design execution.

 
Edward Hsu 

Excellent. Yeah.

 
Boutheina Guermazi 

Yeah. So my message will be with the government's who are our main interlocutors in the bank is, you know, think about it very seriously. There are lessons out there from many other countries. There is a lot of innovation in the private sector. Think about it, don't don't worry about the costs. Think about innovative business solutions to to get the cost to a lower stage, but have an open mind to what innovation can bring. Of course, we need the technology that can be used in our very, very remote area. How how This technology can adapt with the local coordination of course, so we can try to find that kind of technology.

 
Edward Hsu 

Excellent. And Peter?

 
Peter Xu 

Oh, sure, I'd think the most important lesson IBM has learned, you know, with the launch of the core co call for code program that's targeting, you know, how can we motivate mobilize developer to create solution in you know, in disaster recovery, right. So, if you can, just unbelievable how many serving you know, like in last two years, Chris salt, thousands of solutions, right? hardware, software, hardware soft combined, utilize all kinds of connectivity solution, right. So that's first thing I would say, you know, in a mobilizer developer, you know, create less less than half the creativity because technology without developer creates solution. There's just no user right? So multiplies developer creating solution. Secondly, you know, you need to develop echo system, right? Because this is not just software, this hardware partner, you know, all the variables, you know, all the custom IoT device, you need to mobilize the ecosystem or you know, in condition and on the basis of the network, we have to choose whatever network available but, you know, at a time of specific situation, a racing is a bit localized network, it's very different as well.

 
Edward Hsu 

Great. Well, thank you so much. Let's give her the panelists if they can. Thank you very much.

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