Natalie Novak 

Ladies and gentlemen, please welcome to the stage our peace building and technology panel

 
Anne Senges 

Good afternoon, everyone. I'm delighted to be here today with a group of fantastic panelists who are going to talk about peacebuilding and technology. And I'm guessing that's a topic that's not very often discussed in Vegas. So thanks for being here. My name is Anne Senges and I am the communications lead for digital development at the World Bank. Before joining the word bank, I was a journalist based in Silicon Valley. And so today I'm going to wear my my journalist hat, and moderate what I hope will be a very rich discussion on peace building and technology. So today, we're going to talk about technologies that can promote stability and real peace. Technology often gets weaponized but can technology be the next tools for peace building. That's the question we're going to answer try to answer. But before we dive into the topic, I would like to get an idea of who you are. So quick show events are many of you have lived or worked in a country affected by conflicts? 123456. So about a handful, how many of you are working on technologies that can be used to promote peace, or monitor peace or prevent conflict with you as well? So that's, that's great. So here's the deal. I'm going to ask each panelist to introduce themselves in 20 seconds, so that way, I won't butcher the name with my French accent. And I'm going to ask them to say their name, their role and why they are excited to be here today at CES, starting with you.

 
Mohammed Danjuma 

Thank you very much. My name is Mohammed Danjuma. I work with the Northeast Development Commission in Nigeria, we work in to recover the North East that has been ravaged by insurgency in the past decade. And that's the Boko Haram insurgency for those of you that may have heard of that insurgency.

 
Anne Senges 

And why are you excited to be here today?

 
Mohammed Danjuma 

I'm really excited to be here because it presents an opportunity to see where technology would present a solution for some of the interesting things we're doing in Nigeria and seeing how we can recover. The not is sustainably opportunities to build back better. Thank you wonderful mark.

 
Mark Polyak 

Hi, my name is Mark Polyak. I'm Senior Vice President that keeps us public affairs. In that capacity, I run the risk analytics division, which is a group that focuses on remote sensing, and geopolitical forecasts forecasting. I am really excited to be here for a number of reasons I think the biggest biggest reason is really to find collaborators and partners in developing additional technology to kind of get some feedback as to what are the new things that have been developed in the same space and to talk about some of the policy issues that have come up with regards to some of this technology being created. Thank you,

 
William Sonneborn 

Thanks Anne,  I'm Bill Sonneborn. I'm the Senior Director for disruptive technology and funds that the International Finance Corporation which is a sister arm of the World Bank, focused on private sector development. And in that capacity, we're investing and building entrepreneurship ecosystems in emerging markets, trying to bring and entertain new technologies to solve strategic development goals and those markets. And that's why I'm excited to be at CES is really the matchmaking of all of the global tech talent at this conference with the big global needs to solve global poverty and many difficult markets. Margarita

 
Margarita Quihuis 

Hi, I'm Margarita Quihuis, I co direct peace Innovation Lab at Stanford. And I also co direct the peace Innovation Institute in The Hague. I'm excited to be here. Thank you for the the invitation. One, it's a privilege to address all of you at CES, one of the largest technology conferences in the world. I think that we've come to a point in 2020, as we begin this new decade, to really stop, it's a moment to stop and rethink what our priorities are, and how we need to steer innovation, but also bring resources to bear for these existential challenges that we have in our planet right now. And so while we have the existing conflicts that have been going on for some time, we can anticipate in this century that there will be further conflicts unless we're proactive in terms of how we invest our resources and ingenuity. And I want to put a call to action to this community to shift their attention in that direction.

 
Anne Senges 

Wonderful. Thank you Margarita. So let's I promise We're going to bring you to Nigeria. So let's go to Nigeria. And it's a story of hope, resilience and opportunities. It's also a story of access and how technology can help.

 
Mohammed Danjuma 

Yeah. I think I'm, like you rightly said, Let's go to Nigeria. And for those of you that have either read in the news or heard Nigeria is the largest country in Africa No.

 
Anne Senges 

Sorry. Tech Challenge technological challenge, right. Technology spelling us and we're not talking about war yet. So perfect.

 
Mohammed Danjuma 

Yeah. Hope technology will not fail us this time will end Nigeria has a population about 200 million and the northeast Nigeria has been challenged with money surgence it has been ongoing for about a decade now since 2009. So, and northeast Nigeria has about 22 or 23 million people residing in that region. It's about a third of the country's population resides there with a very huge landmass of about probably to turn around 60 or so thousand square kilometers and bore no which is the epicenter of the crisis is 7000 square kilometers that's like, if we can put Belgium like twice in almost it. So it has a very huge land landmass with a very sparsely populated settlements in that area. So the conflict has been driven by both manmade and of course, climatic issues as a result of desertification. And, of course, all the climate issues as has been spoken about in an earlier session today, and the second that's man made, of course, we knew there is an insurgency that has been ongoing. There's, for those of you that have heard of the group called Boko Haram, that have been fighting against Western education, something in the episode in the sticky but that has claimed the lives of almost 20,000 of soap, innocent people over the last decade. And of course, all the social economic indicators and the negative in that region because all those the cocktail of both man made and climate issues have presented an enabling innovation For the insurgency to thrive, and of course, we have more than 2 million people that have been displaced as a result of that insurgency with some of them both being displaced internally. And some of them in neighboring countries have committed in charge and the jail in both camps and host communities, and 80% of this displaced, those displaced that women and children. And I think it would be nice to also let the audience know that 70 about 65 to 70% of the population of Nigeria is young between the ages of 25 and 38. So that is basically the actual workforce that is been seriously affected by this insurgency. And now of course, like I mentioned, all of the social economic indicators, and the negative inputs health, maternal mortality with about 1549 deaths per hundred thousand life Burks as compared to other regions in the country, with an estimated 11 million children out of school in the country, 3 billion of these children are from the northeast. So if you look at all those indicators, they're all looking very, very bleak. And very, very scary for a country that is young, like Nigeria. So the Boko Haram has targeted teach us how to walk us and in its fight against Western education and anything that has sent us through to that. And that has presented a lot of a huge challenge in terms of livelihood, in terms of education and in terms of the poverty making institution that was already bad, even worse. So what is government doing? The government in its response has come through an Act of Parliament constituted the ne W. commission and also a ministry, especially Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs and disaster management, to better coordinate the recovery efforts. One thing the government has loops on average is Look, this is a challenge that cannot be handled only by government actors. It's something that requires collaborative action by both government and non government actors, which is where why the World Bank. And in fact, even African Development Bank and a few other multilaterals and and donor partners have come together to track me for recovery in the place, the North is sustainably and so we have a broad strategy. And of course, some plans. There's a short term plan and then the medium to long term plan. And the strategy is to create access and the only way we can address the issue sustainably is ensuring that some of the Enabling Arab and these the underlying causes of the conflict, addressed sustainably from the community's education, water, sanitation, health care, agricultural, transport, transportation, infrastructure, all these things, better access is provided for these communities that have been so ravaged by this insurgency for Sustainable Development Goals to be met. So, from plans to action, we have the rapid emergency action plan that takes care of short term emergency humanitarian needs. And, of course, the Northeast recovery Master Plan, which is a more longer term plan that has been developed for implementation alongside other partners. But before we did this, there was a huge challenge of access. And I'm sure mark here will speak about some of those challenges because we needed to do an assessment of to confine the needs and the the extent of the damage in those areas that have been affected by the insurgency. There are six states in the northeast, three of them are primarily the ones that have been affected, but no other man up. And the conflict is actually even ongoing. Just before I came in yesterday, there was a report of an attack in one of the communities and below we are 35 people were killed. And it's has also created a secondary displacements and huge humanitarian need. So we needed to find a way of actually conducting these assessments. So there was a peace building and assessment that was done in collaboration with partners. The World Bank was part of those partners that participated in doing that and we in we used things like remote sensing and geospatial analytics to be able to access some of those places using satellite imagery that cannot be physically assessed as a result of both either security challenges or the tyrian x challenges. So, we were able to quantify some of those needs using technology. And as you will find in some of the presentation slides, you will see that we had used that as a very fundamental tool to be able to quantify the needs in those three states also come up with solutions that are tailored to the peculiarities of those states. So, beyond that, we have come up with also some solutions that are bottom up with the communities to see how do we now create responses that are tailored to the needs alongside with them so that they are not We don't just come to the community and say this is your problem. And this is how we want to respond. Rather, we sit with them to design solutions based on their peculiarities and things like we've done some partnerships with some universities to come up with innovation hopes for humanitarian aid, which has helped in creating things like the 3d printing lab, for prosthetic limbs for victims of the insurgency. That is something that has been done in partnership with ICRC. And we're also doing things like establishing partnerships, partnership with Cisco, to create to train women in computer programming, using local language and things that they can quickly become. So these are some of the innovative ways where we're looking at and then one very interesting one that I found very, very useful was use of immersive VR technology to To do documentaries that presents the real situation of this displaced challenges displacement challenge to people that ordinarily cannot be able to go to the northeast to actually see the effect of some of this. And that has really helped in even raising funds. Because people that ordinarily will cannot connect with the amount of the the the quantum quantum of damage can actually see what is happening in the northeast and see the lives of those beer affected as if you actually in the northeast,

 
Anne Senges 

right. I'm keeping an eye on the clock so we go back to Nigeria with Mark and yourself would be clever about that gives me the perfect opportunity to go to Bill because you're talking about the importance of private sector involvement private sector brings jobs and stability but bill you know, it's it's risky. business, it's risky to invest in these fragile regions. So talk a little bit about you know, you know, private sector involvement in in five countries such as the northeast Nigeria.

 
William Sonneborn 

That's that's a great lead in and northeast Nigeria is a perfect example of what the IFC is trying to do, which is if you think in in fragile conflict and violence oriented states, there's about 2 billion people affected today. And about 10 years about half of the extreme poverty unless we do something about this will reside in these specific states. Technology is a very important tool when you look at the challenges with displaced refugees in the case of education, how access to education in refugee camps, how you get health care when and in fragile conflict and violence or in states. You know, the number of doctors per population are extremely low in Africa. Overall, it's one doctor for 5000 people and FCV parts of Africa. One doctor for 20,000 people, how do you arm that doctor with technology so that can be an obstetrician gynecologist, cardiologist, and oncologist, as well as an orthopedic surgeon using technology, telemedicine, and artificial intelligence based technologies. How do we deliver that into these markets both by bringing external technology that's resonant today and develop markets to these these these countries and nations. But also, how do we build it internally? How do we create entrepreneurship internally, IFC is focused on building accelerators in these difficult markets, to actually create an entrepreneurship mentality and some of these difficult refugee camps to really find seed capital and advisory support for them to launch businesses, because we need to solve it both ways, new technologies coming in, and job growth and people feeling hope and opportunity from women within these markets. And so that's what we're We're focused on with respect to FCB countries. Two examples IFC with some other Development Financial Institutions invested in a small logistics provider in Liberia. This is right at the time of the Ebola crisis. The company had a tech enabled logistics idea to figure out how to deliver blood and medical supplies to the infected areas of Liberia. That company started small. It's now the dominant logistics providers, the ups of Liberia. Secondly, in the Congo, we saw an opportunity to invest again with other development financial institutions in the equity of I call center in the Congo. It started off with around 200 employees, it's now over 1000 and includes multinational customers, including Samsung, we're creating employment and hope in places where it didn't exist. And that's the future of how we solve these problems.

 
Anne Senges 

Wonderful. Mark, I am coming to you. Now. You developed some, you know, technology solutions for very complex emergency response planning in countries as diverse as you know, from Iraq to Nigeria, Somalia, Yemen and Bangladesh and India, I believe you're an expert in geopolitical forecasting and remote sensing. So give us a sense of what these emerging technologies can really do in terms of peacebuilding, peace, maintaining and forecasting as well.

 
Mark Polyak 

Oh, thank you. Thank you very much. So I think one thing that is important to kind of quickly bring up is an overview of what Mohammed and Bill have been talking about. What you're seeing here is a map that is show in the distribution of disaster zones and conflicts Jessa 2018, the rate of conflict, air rate of conflict and the rate of disaster zones have increased fourfold in the last five years. So increasingly, the involvement of organizations such as World Bank in the FCB setting, is becoming a necessity. And at the same time, there's also a need to accurately and rapidly understand the situation in this areas, as Bill pointed out, identify opportunities for assistance, and quickly estimate damage so that loans and assistance can go to people like Mohammed and persist in recovery of a region. So, if we look at it, look at it holistically, one of the instruments that have been used to do this is remote sensing. And if you think about remote sensing and FCV setting, what is it really about? It's really about this three things, reducing uncertainty, increasing accountability, and to some degree, early warning. What do I mean by that? A lot of times in the middle of conflict or in the middle of disaster, you're dealing with many rumors, you're dealing with fake news. You're dealing With information manipulation, sometimes it's very difficult to understand what is what is really taking place. Sometimes you may not may not always have a viable government partner on the other side that's for World Bank to to work with. So, what are the instruments of technology which you can use to understand the situation on the ground, increasing accountability, a fair amount of time when there is a reconstruction that is taking place in a in a FCV setting? It is difficult for the funding of organization to send in regular a third party monitoring agents in the area. How do you use technology effectively, to understand what is taking place is a recovery is a recovery is a recovery process moving at the rate that you expected? Can you validate the reports about the reconstruction process and to some degree where possible Technology can serve as an early warning agent in terms of understanding where you may have the next drought, where you may have possibility for a major flood, and also, in some cases, has a good forecaster of conflict. So how is World Bank and other organizations actually using some of this technology? So specifically, I've listed what I personally believe to be 80% of the current use cases, damage assessment, this kind of bread and butter of remote sensing. As Muhammad said, when you look at northeast Nigeria, you really have the situation of scorched earth. Boko Haram has destroyed schools, burn schools, a lot of times, have attacked healthcare facilities, and raised buildings to the ground. So satellite imagery has been quite effective in really understanding what is rate of damage and to some degree assistant estimating how much from the economic standpoint is needed. How many people are lacking access to access to safe housing. The second piece is access to services. This is probably the number one priority of any agency or any government in a middle of FCV setting can be tell how many people are using health facilities can be tell how many students have access to two schools can be tell if a transportation pathway if a highways are big enough, or roads are big enough to let us pass logistics supplies to bring an aid to the population. This is something that often relies on utilization of remote sensing, reconstruction verification, as I said, I mentioned before, kind of looking at the construction rate, looking at the recovery rate, agricultural capacity, this is something that agricultural capacity and also for forestry capacity. This is something that came quite in handy in Somalia in estimating the impact of a drought, understanding how much of a crops and what type of crops were no longer being cultivated or, or destroyed. Where are the most vulnerable agricultural communities needing aid in northeast Nigeria in particular, for the first time ever with World Bank's assistance, and government of Nigeria was able to estimate the damage to the forestry as a result of Boko Haram using forest around Borno area, four camps and basically setting up illegal illegal logging. Conflict dynamics, as I mentioned before, can you understand where there's a potential for conflict given migration? Again, those are just some of the most basic use cases of remote sensing. Now from perspective of technology, what type of technology is actually being used? Why A key technology has been used for a long time is satellite drone and aerial in aerial imagery. Typically, it's a high resolution imagery, anywhere between if you're using a satellite imagery you're talking about anywhere between 30 to 50 centimeter resolution imagery, good enough to be able to see if a building has been damaged or destroyed. When it comes to drones. You can even get all the way to five centimeter five centimeter resolution imagery. Literally, you're almost looking a person in the eye. So five centimeter to 15 centimeter resolution imagery is what you're dealing with when you're working with drones. The other types of type of common technology is social listening and crowdsourcing. social listening has become quite critical to understanding the voice of the citizen to understand the grievances of population to understand the functionality in access to services. At the same time, social crowdsourcing has been a great tool in eliciting eliciting advice from a local population to understand whether a particular initiative may be welcome in that particular region, or what does a local population see as priorities for reconstruction in this in this particular area, or what other type of innovative approach can be used in a particular particular space.

 
Mark Polyak 

The other source of information that has become really quite useful as a synthetic aperture radar, especially in the last three, four years. With the introduction of nano satellites, it's become a lot easier to understand the to utilize. Sar SAR is commonly used to understand the impact of the floods. Also to understand the rate of industrial production, understand where people have access to light at night and to some degree Get a sense of a nighttime migration of populations in FCV setting. The other type of imagery that has been used quite often is hyperspectral. satellite imagery is hyperspectral. In the multispectral imagery is typically used to understand the impact on our crops, other areas being cultivated. Can you tell whether the areas where the cultivated areas have been destroyed or not used as a result of a drought? Or is it because of conflict, people are no longer using this particular agricultural holding? Again, Rosa, I would say this makes up I would say about this type of technology is used in about 60 to 70% of the setting. So, I'll use one particular example which I like it's a very To me, it's a simple example, from perspective of how something like this could be utilized. I deliberately decided not to pretty it up and give it to you exactly how it was given to the client. This is a city of smile in the middle of Somalia. It is one of the largest IDP camps that nobody has ever heard of. Okay, so what you've seen here in green, other IDP locations of internally displaced people location structures from 2014, in which you seen here in the red of the structures of IDP settlements of people who came to the same area in 2017. So in essence, what you see in here is imagery algorithm that ran through the multiple high resolution satellite imagery frames to understand the settlement settlement settlement patterns. Now, if you look carefully, here, you see two different structures for of IDP settlement all the way in the left, you have basically seen a highly structured engineer create engineer created a strategy plan for deployment. This is for this a probably tents that have been set up by UN or un like organization. When you look all the way to the to the left, you're basically seeing kind of a clustering of informal settlements, this this probably people who came there by themselves, right. So, you can clearly see the difference in the in the settlements. Now, one thing that you can do with current technology, current technology is train the algorithm to recognize those differences. So, you can for example, you can count the number of times, you can estimate the maximum capacity of people who are in the stands. And based on what I just told you, which is again, a very simple example, you can understand, you can understand where do you potentially have vulnerable population, whereas population does not have safe housing safe housing conditions. So that's a more of a logistics logistics planning exercise? Now using the using the deep learning algorithm which is a subset of AI, you can train it you can you can train the system to work on the entire territory of Somalia at any given day and identify for humanitarian community. Where do you see vulnerable population at any given time. Now, here's a second example which is a little bit more complex but equally critical. Notice that if I if I zoom in into the area, there are some places where green dots and the red dots are co located to each other right? was the reason for it is because the population that came in the series in 2017, came from the same clan, that clan and tribe that came here in 2014. Now if you look or up, you see that the UN camp all the way on, all the way in in

 
Mark Polyak 

Northwest and also the kind of informal settlement in the north northeast. What you see in there is none of them have green dots. And in essence, the reason for it is because Roosevelt IDPs came from a client's that the foreign to that particular a particular region, they've never been here before. So in essence, what you can see is they're located completely outside the borders of the city, and do not necessarily have access to infrastructure of a city. So you can train the algorithm to recognize those subtle differences, amongst other things to kind of say, this is where you may have potential for resource conflict. Again, this is a very simple example, but I wanted to point that point that out, you know, I just want to leave it leave it with a last last point that I'm just kind of going here quickly. This is a current paradigm at this point. This is some of the most common common sources of data that allow you to take a snapshot of a situation in the FCV setting. This is what's currently evolving. Okay, and this is key, you have a situation where instead of taking one snapshot from a satellite, you have a closed circuit cameras for modern satellites. Right now you have satellites with pass over the same area six to eight times a day. Within the next year, you will have satellites that are passing from the same area 45 times a day. Think about it. Think about it from perspective of ability to really see the present unfold in front of you and to be able to monitor that situation. The second part that I want you to consider is the fact that the advances in cloud computing and AI have made it possible to do automated image imagery analysis and to significantly improve our decision support systems. Again, this is good, but also bad because the question is in the crisis Will you have time to do that type of review of information? Or will you believe it What? Whatever the algorithm is telling you. Okay? Again, I'm happy to discuss this later, but just kind of wanted to bring this up. See how the paradigm is changing from snapshot to real time.

 
Anne Senges 

Okay, thank you, Mark. We go back to the issue of the dark side of technology and the issue around privacy and who owns what and but I wanted to give the floor to Margarita who is going to give us your perspective. She's she has a she's bringing an interesting perspective as a behavioral designer, and I wanted Margarita. Can you tell us a little bit about the work you're doing at the Stanford peace innovation lab and before we went on stage, you were talking to me about building the next generation of peacebuilders through piece engineering. So can you tell us about it?

 
Margarita Quihuis 

Absolutely. So we're going to fly through these slides. We tell you three stories. And a little bit about what we do. So our history we've been, we're based out of Stanford, we started out of Stanford in the mid 2000s. BJ Fogg was the person who asked the question, could we actually get to peace through through behavioral interventions. And throughout in a class and a pilot, we became a lab, blah, blah, blah. So there you are on the slide, skip. So what we do is, you know, our lab over the last 10 years, we have worked out what our agenda is. One is that we realized that you have to look at this as an entire system. So we're looking to create a market value, market signal for the value of peace. Because if you can't move capital markets to invest in peace, we will not get peace. All right. The next is to catalyze a piece tech sector and industry. So once we create demand on the capital markets, we need to have supply so we need to have a piece tech industry. And the third is we need to have a framework and most importantly curriculum for the ethical and safe deployment of Emerging Technologies and innovation, because I don't know if you've noticed. But this wonderful thing has been weaponized. And the people who designed it never envisioned that it would be weaponized in the way that it has an any emerging technology. You know, Google, their motto used to be, don't be evil. Right now, I'm saying Don't be naive, because any technology that you're going to deploy will be hacked, will be weaponized, will be used in a way that you did not intend. In order for us to not, you know, see this movie over and over and over again, we need to fundamentally change the education in engineering, to emphasize safe and ethical deployment. If we don't do that, we're going to be having the same conversation over and over again. So my lab is focused on those three things. It's not a small challenge. As I say to my co director, we are 10 years into a 20 year journey. So the programs that we have to operationalizes is to create this market single demand is through our peace data standard that we establish Last year, the second to in terms of addressing supply is through peace engineering. And the third is to create a community of practice. So we've launched this peace Innovation Network that we just did late last year. And so those are the action items to make this a reality. And I invite you to talk to me about any of these three that resonate with you. So what's in our toolkit behavior design? Okay, so we have a foundation and behavioral science, because you know what, no matter what you invent it, you can't people get people to use it, it ends up in your junk drawer. How many of you have technologies things that you bought? Because you it was going to make you or your workplace or something a better thing, and you never used it? Right? How many of you have a thighmaster and you never used it? How many of you have a treadmill and you never used it? How many of you have technologies that we thought were going to make a difference. And yet people cannot get habituated to use it. If you don't understand human behavior, whatever technology or innovation that you have will fail. I promise you that Next thing that we look at is persuasive technology. Because as we know, who knew in 2006, that we'd all be walking around like this every day. And yet technology has a way to change behavior at scale, the way that your mother never could. Right? Millions of people are texting each other and not talking to each other. The technology, it can do that in a way that provides a very tight feedback loop to move behavior. There are parallels and there's promise in that. And the third is data. Because if you can't measure what you're doing, you can't see if it's having one the positive intended effect that you want it or worse, that is causing damage. So you have to have sensors in place to see what's going on. And in this day and age, you can't say I didn't know because we have sensors everywhere. Oh my god, they're doing facial facial recognition here at CES. So you can't say they don't know who you are. So, next, our lab our fundamental question. And if you're an academia, you need to have your research question. Our research question is, How good can we be to each other? It's not about what the next technology is going to be. It's how good can we be to each other? and using that as a guiding principle, we start looking at technology through a different lens, right? So, three stories, the first one is called besties. In 2009, we launched a project called peace dot. And the question that we asked corporations was, how much peace are you creating in the world? So we talked to Facebook back then they were a good guy. And they said, I don't know, how can we measure peace. And so what they did was they looked at the number of unique daily friending activities between individuals across a difference boundary, to looked at the friending activities of Palestinians and Israelis, Muslims and Christians, Republicans and Democrats,

 
Margarita Quihuis 

separate you know, Turks and Greeks, and they did this on a daily basis. We could see for the first time positive interactions in the form of a digital friendship, which means that if I'm a friend with you and your friend with me, our social networks know that we're friends, we have made a public statement that we are friends. And it was the first time that we could, in a very concrete specific way, measure a peace behavior. And that told us that there was a possibility of doing this, because if you listen to the news, we have a lot of data on bad things. We're not very good at measuring good things. So we did that. Many case study operation pillar defense, we were monitoring this, and this was in 2002 2012. And then and we were looking at the conflict that was going on between Israel and Palestine at that time. At the same time, we could look at the concurrent funding activity. And even though they were in conflict, people were still making friends across that difference boundary. That was not The news next story is called play nice. So how many of you find the internet to be a cesspool? It is sort of like that Cantina in Star Wars. It's a den of iniquity. You know, bad things trolling. You know, why don't nobody wants to go there. Certainly gamer gate anyone video game platforms, very toxic. So as my colleague Chris Bennett says, Video game designers are at the tip of the spear when it comes to human behavior at Riot Games. They said, our environment is so toxic. Should we do anything about it? Can we do anything about it? And Dr. Jeff Lynne that said, Yes, I think we need to do something about it. How can we make this platform less toxic, and they proceeded to run thousands and thousands of psychology experiments and interventions to see if they could improve the level of civility on that platform. You know what they did? So this gives us hope that you can actually design a user experience that will elicit better behavior from people. And this goes to our question, How good can we be to each other? jesslyn asked as engineers, how can we design this platform? So people can be better to each other? Because when they did the analytics, they said, I know what will throw all the assholes off the platform? Well, it turns out, it was only 2% of the players. Everybody else was having a bad day, statistically. So you go, if I can throw out everyone. If I threw out everyone who's having a bad day, I don't have a business anymore. So how can I get these people to play better, and they found ways to do it and do it and they were able to measure it. Very powerful stuff. so powerful that the game industry launched the fair play Alliance, where they can show share best practices and research in terms of player behavior. And this is to me weak signal of what is possible in the future when we set our intention. Next story, strangers in the night. I love this story. So how many of you will allows perfect strangers to stay in your home? Anyone? Would you if I said can you can i kids a perfect stranger stay in your home? Would you be okay with that tonight? Yes, okay. Most of the time people say no What about you know, ah, you know, what if they paid you 100 bucks? No 200 bucks? No, still not convinced.

 
Margarita Quihuis 

All right. What is it worth if you could change this tiny behavior, this tiny hospitality behavior and make it okay to provide hospitality for a perfect stranger? What would that be worth? And if you could get them to trust at scale, if you could somehow figure out how to get millions of people to trust each other at scale? What would that be worth? Well, you know, the story is Airbnb, Airbnb algorithmicly figured out how to get Minimum Viable trust so that you that way you would allow a perfect stranger to stay in your home. And what's interesting to me is that 20 billion was earned by women, female hosts on Airbnb. And if there's anyone who knows anything about risk women raise your hand, right? They were able to create the context and how the technology to allow that to happen. So we know that when we can allow up, unleash and unlock this positive behavior, we can unlock trust at scale. We can generate economic value and value creation for each other. So that is the potential when you design the technology properly. Now, we won't get into the case studies of when it goes bad. But the good news is that they have the ability to monitor and correct it. Because they go if we see a trend, we can put a stop to it. We have the data, we can push out a software update and put a stop to that behavior. The next a market signal for the value of peace. Now, we could ask Bill Gates to donate money all day long. But when you look at the size of capital markets, they're this big and the size of philanthropy is this big. So relying on philanthropy and development to make an impact in the world is naive. When you think about the proportion of resources that are creating the problem in the first place, we have to create a market signal. One of the dilemmas that we found when we talk to investors is that they don't have a good way to do due diligence and they have a hard time finding deal flow. I talked to we talked to a Dutch pension fund to go we have billions of dollars to put to work for social impact and for SDGs, but we cannot find companies that are large enough to invest in that can demonstrate in a concrete measurable way that they're having impact. So we wrote the piece to the head peace data standard, and we published it last year. I will not get into the academics because you're not getting academic Audience so you don't need to see the academic demick meet, which is all the data in the tables. But trust me, this is the first step and leveraging the power of big data and machine learning to understand when and how technology facilitates peace. And this data standard is not only useful for peace, but we can also use it for sustainability as well. So last thing, piece engineering, designing safe and ethical technologies. So we know that anything can be weaponized in the way the inventors did not intend. So what are we going to do to mitigate the unintended consequences of this lack of insight, this lack of foresight, a negative externalities, we need to think about how we invent technology. So this is going back to academia where engineers are trained, and getting them to work with people who are not engineers, philosophers, historians, the historians anthesis of people who can bring other people perspectives because by God, these problems have been dealt with for millennia. We need other voices to come in to help co create these solutions. So that's what we're looking for in our peace engineering effort. We want to proactively detect unintended uses. We want to have, you know, for AI, as exciting as it is, how do you audit the algorithms? How do you detect for bias, especially when the AI is teaching itself? We need to have a way to do that. And we need to think about it right now, not 10 years from now, the other thing that you need to do is you have to have good data sets, because you know what AI is kind of like your toddler. It repeats it, you know, when your toddler starts cursing, you go, where did they learn it from? It's like, it was from me. AI is stupid. Ai needs a good data set. And so we need to have data sets of good behavior, so that AI can act the way that we want it to. If it you know if all of you recall the Microsoft Twitter bot that within 24 hours with the Nazi spewing little hate bot, right? Because the crowd trained it that way. If we're going to have this, this self learning intelligence, we need to be very, very mindful of what we're putting in its little head. And we need to have safeguards to deploy. We can't say any more, Oh, I'm sorry, I had no idea that someone was going to use it for a bad purpose. We have sensors everywhere. We need to instrument them to detect it.

 
Margarita Quihuis 

So for me, as an engineer, as someone from Silicon Valley, as someone who works with multinationals and startups, we need to focus on creating the world that we want. Because we tend to start out with who I have a technology I'm going to like figure out a way to use it. But you know what, nobody says, boy. I'm going to wait, I can't wait wait to wake up and be an unemployed long haul truck driver in the United States. Nobody's wishing for that future. We need to think about the future that we want in high resolution, the future that we want in 10 years in 20 years. And then go toward that. Instead of saying, I've come up with this innovation. And now I'm going to try to find all these different places to plug it in, because then we end up with these unintended consequences. So, my call to action, contact me, if you want to work with me, call me You can Google me. The name is spelled right there. It's kind of hard. Get in touch with me. I would love to talk to you about how we can create the world that we want and to intelligent intelligently innovate and design the technology that we need. Thank you very much.

 
Anne Senges 

Thank you Margarita for this really a strong and inspiring call to action. Before I get keynote to you, I realize we are running. We only have 10 minutes left. I just wanted to give our panelists a chance to answer one really important question about you talked about it with you know, we were talking about the user of AI and How can the privacy we're talking about vulnerable people with low level of literacy in federal countries? How can their privacy be protected? What constitutes ethical use of AI and remote sensing data and all these technologies? So who wants to start,

 
William Sonneborn 

Bill? I mean, it's a great question because I love marks presentation. But all of the same technologies in the wrong government's hands can be used as a massive weapon of destruction. And so that's where regulatory policy and how we deploy these technologies and how we design them in the first place and monitor them has to come to come together to avoid those situations to protect privacy to protect the underprivileged because the wrong government could use these two really fell ends. So who has the right to these technologies Mark?

 
Mark Polyak 

So well, I'll put our producer First of all, I completely agree that regulatory pathway is the right way to go. There's been a whole number of regulatory frameworks that have been pioneered, I would say, mostly in Europe and I think us is kind of common to that, where the idea is, if you're using a particular particular technology for either decision making critical decision making, either to for national security or in a crisis situation or in some kind of government setting of company that is providing for private private secretaries providing the actual technology has to put the black box if you will, the algorithms in a public trust, there has to be there has to be a good explainable set of there has to be if you will explainable AI ability to explain how the I reach a particular decision to a point where for example, a year ago, France has France has come out with a national vi strategy specifically delineated that ball for data and the algorithms that are used for this type of this type of settings have to be a kind of have to be in the government domain in order to see what is going on. The second thing that I would also say is rules rules are not enough there have to be, if you will, internal auditors, internal rules inside the actual, the actual technology companies to protect themselves against it in some ways, doing things their own way inadvertently or protecting themselves against individuals that may want to use this technology in, in a funny way, right. So one thing that I would also say is, for example, even last week, United States government has come out with a new export restriction, which basically said that any satellite technology any to satellite technology software that can do feature detection, or object detection can no longer be exported to a number of countries. I think some that was kind of a regulatory regulatory response, to protect national security or also to protect the technology from being abused, for use for targeting target targeting purposes. So basically, there's a regulatory response versus internal auditor response. And then there's a third piece which is kind of deconstructing the data in such a way that none of it have been put together can be linked to a particular individual. And some of the things are already been done and practice quite effectively. Partially because technology technology Companies are really starting to realize that they need to be quite attentive and attuned to voice concerns. And at the same time, also due to in, I would say, a much more enforced regulatory framework. I'm not going to say that this is enough. But I would actually say that this is a good beginning, a good start to get the point where that technology is better, better understood. One last thing that I would also say is, a lot of it technology is still very much in a wild west sense. Like, for example, when you're talking about providers have de identified or anonymized cell phone data, verse 86, providers of that type of information in US alone. Okay, and there is no clear monopoly on that data. There is no clear regulatory framework that exists. To truly, truly guide it in some cases regulatory framework is three to five years behind. reactional topology.

 
Anne Senges 

Thank you, Mark. Mohammed, you want to say one word about what you're doing in Nigeria? What's the government is doing to build that trust with citizen and enable them to use these technologies without fear of? You know

 
Mohammed Danjuma 

I think we are we, for us, we are already there, in the sense that we have a context where even the insurgents are using technology. Now, for evil purposes. For example, the first thing they did was to knock off communication mask in the whole of that area that they were operating. And when the military were doing the operation, they found that they were using satellite phones, the insurgents to communicate among themselves to coordinate the attacks. And so you can see it's a it's a situation where we're playing practically playing catch up. So what we're saying is, how can we know not waste this  crisis, where we're talking about 11 million children out of school, that the infrastructure is not even there in the first instance. And now the insurgency has come on even made it even worse. How can we leapfrog from where we are and and fix it for education? How can we use technology to get distributed bring the school to the children? How can we find partners where we can now create local systems and platforms that they can learn even from home? How can we get them healthcare systems through using technology where they can provide they can be provided health care, probably even remotely or using the latest technology, seeing how we can quickly move from where we are to where we need to go at a faster pace. So we have a duck cross road now and it's an approach forced to do things and build back better. But like Bill said, the challenge is still is still there, right? Where it's not in place for the government alone to do. We need to have partnerships in place create safe spaces for even private sector to come on also invest, but in such a way that it can be sustainable and can be accepted by the by the, by the population by the community.

 
Anne Senges 

Thank you so much. I'm sorry. We're running out of time. I see that I have two minutes left. Bill, you need to go because you ever. Thank you so much for being here. Is there one burning question in the room? Okay. You get to ask the question. You need a mic, perhaps. And we have two minutes and 26 seconds. 25 now 24 Thank you a few months ago I launched a very first micro mobility service in Central America. And I'm having a very hard time in convincing everyone to deploy the assets in other rural areas. And I'm starting to realize that is the problems not in the logistics or the infrastructure, but more of the branding of the region. And especially in Central America I say this because it's the hotbed of where all these traffickers and you know their recruiters, so as not just investor but also facilitator service provider of tech based services on what are some tips, you can share that so that I can rebrand the whole region.

 
Mohammed Alkali 

You have one minute who wants to do it in one minutes. Margarita, I pass. Mark.

 
Mark Polyak 

Honestly, the most important thing is to develop locals trust, okay. You have to be able to explain how technology work works to the locals. They have to feel like they own a part of it. They if if that does not happen, you will not doesn't matter how you brand it, de branded, rebrand it, you will not win. If a local population does not think that is part of them, it's not gonna work.

 
Anne Senges 

I was asking about private sectors interest. For example, my partner said, screw the rural, we don't want to push that we take that offline. So thank you so much for a fantastic discussion. Please give a round of applause to our Thank you

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